The name Riofiume should come from the Latin "AERIS FLUMEN" (Copper River), but despite the assiduous researches copper deposits have never been identified, but instead may be a transfer of name, in fact, do not forget that there is the ditch  Eri where in Roman times (II.sec.B.C.) there was a monumental bath complex (Aquae Caeretanae). This river originates in the area between Mount Tolfaccia and Bandita Grande and along a length of about 10 km to flow at Santa Severa. The area investigated is located along the Riofiume between the locations of Mount Ianni north-west and south of  Pozzo di Ferro(Iron Pit). The area of our interest despite being surrounded by prehistoric presences (Tolfaccia, Freddara, Tufarelle) was explored only once in all its extension (S. Bastianelli, St.Etr.vol.16, 1942) and for that reason today many graves we know only the topographical locations (M. Ianni, Macchia of St.Caterina, Ara's Ash). Crossing the river toward the north we find a steep hill (409 m asl) called Pozzo di Ferro, his foot is visible a small plain, where it differs from the round stones (sedimentary rocks, 20-70 cm diameter) driven into the ground. Their arrangement is not random but is intended to form corridors and circles. This sort, make us to understand that we are facing funds hut whose diameter varies from 3 to 7 mt, perhaps Neolithic. Going back the foot of the hill there is a medieval street and the fragments of tile related to a Roman villa (II sec.AC). Further north, bank adjacent of the river is to a semi-dozen blocks of sedimentary rock (as known Macigno) belonging to a drywall and the terraces. A short distance from the funds of the hut there is a second paved road leading to  the ancient medieval city of  Tolfa Nuova (eleventh century A.D.) located on Mount Tolfaccia. At this street there are blocks of sandstone scattered on the ground that reveal the presence of other walls dry funds belonging to prehistoric dwellings. We know that on the south-east of  Pozzo di Ferro they found a jar of paste and ceramic sherds impressed attributable to the Middle Bronze I-II (1700-1500 B.C.) (F.Di Gennaro, Mainz am Rhein 1990), we can conclude that the presence of these blocks of sandstone, not related to the geology of the place that has rather clear marl, are considered as remnants of terraced houses and attributed to the recent Bronze Age. This hypothesis is also endorsed by a probable presence housing in the Pantanelle locality to the south-west of the Iron Pit (C.Persiani, BPI vol.83, 1991-1992) where he found a bowl faired. North of  Iron Pit there is Mount Ianni, here we discover along its eastern flank five tombs and the foundations of a large rectangular structure. The first two burials are formed by a rectangular pit (3x2 m) covered with blocks of sandstone, the third is what remains of a mound of earth and rubble that covered an elliptical base (axis 4 m and 2 m) made of sandstone blocks . The fourth structure is shaped like an equilateral triangle (side 1 m) and this makes us suppose that we are witnesses to an Iron Age tomb in the cockpit, or more probably a well used for sacred rites or as a food pantry . The last burial is a rectangular (150x50 cm) sedimentary rock-cut tombs.This type is specific of the Tolfa mountains and is distributed in various places near Mount Ianni (Ara of Ash, the Fontanile Nocchia, The End , The defeat) for a total of twenty-one graves identified (C.V.Petrizzi, in Da Agylla at Centumcellae, 1992.). According to the small outfit is found , the Etruscan tombs dating from the Orientalizing to the Archaic period (VII sec.B.C. – IV sec.B.C.). Finally, the large structure in rectangular (18x12 m) are only the foundations consist of blocks of sandstone (50-70 cm side) roughly squared, the same material of the burial pit. The foundations are also present within the structure and this makes us realize that we are dealing with a building divided into at least two rooms, whose inner walls are parallel to the short sides of the building. These elements combined with the fact that there is no absolute presence of remains of brick or adobe we suggest that this is a house dating from the Etruscan VII-VI sec.AC built with mud walls and a roof of matting pairs and gabled. An important finding given the lack of such findings in the literature on the mountains of Tolfa.


     
           

 
 



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